The ionosphere is a part of the upper atmosphere (75–1000 km in altitude) where atoms and molecules are ionized appreciably and the propagation of electromagnetic waves is significantly affected by the ionization. Important space weather phenomena such as disruption of communication and navigation systems and damage on power transmission lines are caused by the ionosphere, and therefore, accurate knowledge of ionospheric phenomena and their drivers has a vital importance for the mitigation of the impact of space weather on the society. This talk will provide an overview of ionospheric phenomena and their drivers. In Part 1, ionospheric climatology induced by solar radiation and anomalies associated with electrodynamical coupling of plasma and neutral particles will be introduced. Three key elements for understanding ionospheric phenomena are electric fields, neutral winds, and neutral composition. The physical processes underlying these three elements and their application will be explained in Part 2. Various forms of ionospheric disturbances induced by various sources (geomagnetic storms, plasma instability, tropospheric storms, tornadoes, volcanos, earthquakes, and rocket launches) will be presented in Part 3.