IAU100] Above & Beyond Exhibition Decade10 ai자료 압축파일 입니다.
D10.1.1.A._SW Gravitational waves
Astronomy and the public
Astronomy is one of the most inspiring and engaging sciences for the greater public. In 2009, hundreds of millions of people engaged with astronomy during the UN's International Year of Astronomy. As part of a long-standing tradition, non-experts have been contributing significantly to astronomical research, ranging from the involvement of amateur astronomers to citizen-science programmes. This is a multicultural, active and knowledgeable global community. Although we all see the sky from slightly different perspectives, stargazing is the one of the most unique and transformative activities one can imagine. The night sky is an astronomer's laboratory and it connects us all to our common origins.
One of the key theoretical predictions of general relativity ? that accelerated massive objects produce waves in the very fabric of spacetime ? was finally proven about one hundred years later. In 2015, lasers in two detectors of the LIGO experiment independently recorded fluctuations that did not originate from anywhere on Earth. These signals had a common source: the collapse of two black holes, each as massive as 30 Suns, located roughly 1.4 billion light years away and coalescing into an even larger monster. The spacetime vibrations lasted less than half a second, but this was more than enough time to match their forms to a patterns library and to deduce the mass and distances of the black holes. This first detection enabled the use of gravitational waves as an observational tool for astronomy and cosmology in parallel to electromagnetic radiation. This opened a new scientific window for studying the Universe with more ongoing and planned projects on Earth and the development of an observatory in space.
Spiral dance of black holes
01. TWAN/Babak Tafreshi, 02. Naveen Nanjundappa/She is as Astronomer, 03. ESO, 04. Mariusz Słonina / mariusz-slonina.pl
05. LIGO/T. Pyle, 06. C. Henze/NASA Ames Research Center, 07. ESA/C. Carreau, 08. Caltech/MIT/LIGO Lab
LIGO Livingston observatory
D10.1.2.A._SW Space missions
Solar system missions
Our persistent motivation to investigate the Universe, to understand our cosmic origins and to find extraterrestrial life pulls us to pursue continuously new research. We have been permanently present at low-Earth orbit for the past couple of decades thanks to the collaborative effort of many nations. We have sent crewless probes to different corners of the Solar System to answer questions about the origin of life and how it could have formed, billions years ago. In these adventurous missions,we probed the atmosphere of Saturn’s moon Titan, visited a comet and collected samples from an asteroid. Our messengers have also flown by the eerie mountains of distant Pluto and observed the largest planets and moons in the Solar System.
NASA/Crew of STS-132
NASA/Tracy Caldwell Dyson
ESA/NASA/JPL/University of Arizona
NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/University of Idaho
Shinki Ikeda/MEF/JAXA ISAS
JAXA, U. of Tokyo, Kochi U., Rikkyo U., Nagoya U.,
Chiba Institute of Technology, Meiji U., Aizu U., AIST
NASA/Crew of STS-91
Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstadt/Sean Doran
NASA/JPL-Caltech/SwRI/MSSS/Gerald Eichstadt/ Sean Doran
International Space Station 1998-
New Horizons 2006-
Hayabusa 1 & 2 2003
Europa Clipper 2022-
D10.1.3.A._SW Worldwide collaborations
International collaboration has supported the most successful observational astronomy projects. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is a paramount example of a worldwide collaboration between Europe, East Asia and North America in partnership with Chile. It is now the most ambitious radio observatory on Earth consisting of 66 antennas located in northern Chile.
Looking ahead, the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is currently scheduled for launch in 2021 and is a joint effort between North America and Europe. Organisations, engineers and scientists from around the world are also working together on the Square Kilometre Array: the world’s largest radio telescope that will eventually cover a collecting area of over one square kilometre.
Collaborations such as these will open new, deeper and sharper windows to continue making sense of the Universe in the next decades.
Credit: ESO/B. Tafreshi
Square Kilometer Array telescope
Credit: SKA/Mathieu Isidro
James Webb Space Telescope
Credit: NASA/Desiree Stover
D10.1.5._SW Infrastructure table
Expanding the knowledge about the Universe brings people from all around the world to work together to uncover its riddles. Increasingly sophisticated studies require stronger tools, including advanced telescopes, which today are multi-continental, large scale infrastructural projects. Those tools are by an order of magnitude more powerful and complicated than those available at the begining of the century, offering us a deeper and more meaningful way of studying the Universe.
1. Thirty Meter Telescope / Credit : TMT International Observatory
2. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope / Credit: LSST Proejct/NSF/AURA
3. Gran Telescopio Canarias / Credit : Gran Telescopio de Canarias
4. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope / Credit : NCRA-TIFR
5. Cherenkov Telescope Array / Credit : Gabriel Perez Diaz, IAC
6. Keck observatory / Credit : Ethan Tweedie Photography/W.M.Keck Observatory
7. Giant Magallan Telescope / Credit : Giant Magellan Telescope Organization
8. Five hundred meter aperture spherical Telescope / Credit : Reuters/Stringer
9. The Southern African Large Telescope / Credit : Wynand Basson Images
10. Chandra X-Ray Observatory / Credit : NASA / Harvard University
11. Very Large Telescope / Credit : ESO/G. Hudepohl
12. Kepler / Credit : NASA
13. Hobby-Eberly Telescope / Credit : University of Texas
Year : 1917
Mirror Size : 2.5 M
Height : 30.5M
Year : 1999
Mirror size : 8.3M
Height : 43 M
EXTREMELY LARGE TELESCOPE
Year : 2024
Mirror size : 39.3 M
Height : 74 M